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Java 12 was launched on March 19, 2019. It is a Non-LTS version. Some of the Java 12 Features are:
Java is not said to be pure object-oriented because it supports primitive sorts such as int, byte, short, long etc. I believe it brings simplicity to the language while writing our code. Obviously, Java should have wrapper objects for the primitive types but just for the representation, they would no longer have supplied any benefit.
As we know, for all the primitive sorts we have wrapper classes such as Integer, Long etc that offers some additional methods.
In Java, access specifiers are the keywords used before a class name which defines the access scope. The types of access specifiers for classes are:
Within an instance method or a constructor, “this” is a reference to the current object — the object whose method or constructor is being called. You can refer to any member of the current object from within an instance method or a constructor by using this.
Usage of “this” keyword:
Just–In–Time(JIT) Compiler: It is used to enhance the performance. JIT compiles parts of the byte code that have similar functionality at the identical time, and hence reduces the quantity of time needed for compilation. Here the term “compiler” refers to a translator from the instruction set of a Java virtual computer (JVM) to the instruction set of a particular CPU.
Classloader is a subsystem of JVM which is used to load class files. Whenever we run the java program, it is loaded first by the classloader. There are three built-in classloaders in Java.
The Object is the real-time entity having some state and behavior. In Java, Object is an instance of the class having the instance variables as the state of the object and the methods as the behavior of the object. The object of a class can be created by using the new keyword.
In Java, all objects are dynamically allocated on Heap. This is different from C++ where objects can be allocated memory either on Stack or on Heap. In C++, when we allocate object using new(), the object is allocated on Heap, otherwise on Stack if not global or static.
In Java, when we only declare a variable of a class type, only a reference is created (memory is not allotted for an object). To allocate memory to an object, we ought to use new(). So an object is always allotted memory on heap.
A singleton class in Java can have only one instance and therefore all its methods and variables belong to simply one instance. Singleton class concept is useful for the situations when there is a want to limit the number of objects for a class.
The best instance of singleton usage state of affairs is when there is a limit of having only one connection to a database due to some driver boundaries or because of any licensing issues.
Interfaces are core part of Java programming language and used a lot not only in JDK but also Java design patterns, most of the frameworks and tools. Interfaces provide a way to achieve abstraction in Java and used to define the contract for the subclasses to implement.
Interfaces are good for starting point to define Type and create top level hierarchy in our code. Since a Java class can implement multiple interfaces, it’s better to use interfaces as super class in most of the cases.
Based on the parameters passed in the constructors, there are two types of constructors in Java.
It means the values that are stored in a collection is based on the values that are added to the collection. So we can iterate the values from the collection in a specific order.
Sorting mechanism can be applied internally or externally so that the group of objects sorted in a particular collection is based on properties of the objects.
As we know that the static context (method, block or variable) belongs to the class, not the object. Since Constructors are invoked only when the object is created, there is no sense to make the constructors static. However, if you try to do so, the compiler will show the compiler error.
In java, when a package is imported, its sub-packages aren’t imported and developer needs to import them separately if required.
For example, if a developer imports a package university.*, all classes in the package named university are loaded but no classes from the sub-package are loaded. To load the classes from its sub-package (say department), developer has to import it explicitly as follows:
In Java, string objects are immutable in nature which simply means once the String object is created its state cannot be modified. Whenever you try to update the value of that object instead of updating the values of that particular object, Java creates a new string object.
Java String objects are immutable as String objects are generally cached in the String pool. Since String literals are usually shared between multiple clients, action from one client might affect the rest. It enhances security, caching, synchronization, and performance of the application.
Holding the reference of a class within some other class is known as composition. When an object contains the other object, if the contained object cannot exist without the existence of container object, then it is called composition.
In other words, we can say that composition is the particular case of aggregation which represents a stronger relationship between two objects. Example: A class contains students. A student cannot exist without a class. There exists composition between class and students.
Priority Queue: Linked list class has been enhanced to implement the queue interface. Queues can be handled with a linked list. Purpose of a queue is “Priority-in, Priority-out”.
Hence elements are ordered either naturally or according to the comparator. The elements ordering represents their relative priority.
Differences between this and super keyword is listed below.
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