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Selenium is a suite of tools for automated web testing. It is composed of
Exceptions in Selenium are similar to exceptions in other programming languages. The most common exceptions in Selenium are:
An exception test is an exception that you expect will be thrown inside a test class. If you have written a test case in such way that it should throw an exception, then you can use the @Test annotation and specify which exception you will be expecting by mentioning it in the parameters.
@Test(expectedException = NoSuchElementException.class)
Do note the syntax, where the exception is suffixed with .class
Following are the barriers in Selenium.
We can’t test desktop application the usage of Selenium.
We can’t take a look at web services using Selenium.
For developing robust scripts in Selenium WebDriver, programming language knowledge is required.
We have to remember on external libraries and tools for performing tasks like – logging(log4J), testing framework-(testNG, JUnit), analyzing from external files(POI for excels) etc.
Page Object Model is a design pattern for creating an Object Repository for web UI elements. Each web page in the application is required to have it’s own corresponding page class. The page class is thus responsible for finding the WebElements in that page and then perform operations on those WebElements.
The advantages of using POM are:
Page Object Model is a design pattern for creating an Object Repository for web UI elements. Each web page in the application is required to have it’s own corresponding page class. The web page class is accordingly accountable for finding the Web Elements in that page and then perform operations on those Web Elements.
The advantages of the usage of POM are:
There are number of benefits in the usage of the Selenium Grid.
Soft Assert: Soft Assert collects errors during
@Test Soft Assert does no longer throw an exception when an assert fails and would proceed with the next step after the assert statement.
Hard Assert: Hard Assert throws an AssertException immediately when an assert statement fails and test suite continues with next
Both driver.get(“URL”) and driver.navigate().to(“URL”) commands are used to navigate to a URL passed as parameter.
There is a minor difference between the two commands-
Before looking how to handle Stale Element Reference Exception through Page Object Model. Let’s see what is Stale Element Reference Exception first.
Stale means old, decayed, no longer fresh. Stale Element means an old element or no longer available element. Assume there is an element that is found on a web page referenced as a WebElement in WebDriver. If the DOM changes then the WebElement goes stale. If we try to interact with an element which is staled then the StaleElementReferenceException is thrown.
Example – html/body/div/div/div/div/div/div/div/input
A relative XPath is a way of locating an element the usage of an XML expression starting from somewhere in the HTML document. There are one-of-a-kind methods of growing relative XPaths which are used for growing sturdy XPaths (unaffected by way of adjustments in other UI elements).
Example – //input[@id=’username’]
Following is the list of supported locators by Selenium.
Selenium provides the following methods for moving back and forth in a browser.
WebDriver exposes the following APIs to handle such popups.
This is a trick question which the interviewer will present to you. He can provide a situation where in there are 20 links in a web page, and we have to verify which of those 20 links are working and how many are not working (broken).
Since you need to verify the working of every link, the workaround is that, you need to send http requests to all of the links on the web page and analyze the response. Whenever you use driver.get() method to navigate to a URL, it will respond with a status of 200 – OK. 200 – OK denotes that the link is working and it has been obtained. If any other status is obtained, then it is an indication that the link is broken.
But how will you do that?
First, we have to use the anchor tags <a> to determine the different hyperlinks on the web page. For each <a> tag, we can use the attribute ‘href’ value to obtain the hyperlinks and then analyze the response received for each hyperlink when used in driver.get() method.
We use Navigate interface to do navigate back and forth in a browser. It has methods to move back, forward as well as to refresh a page.
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